Tourism traditionally has been viewed as
largely beneficial to and compatible with the entire process of
economic development. Tourism is an industry employing more than
100 million people around the world and provides all governments
with over hundreds of millions of dollars in tax revenues.
Tourism is currently one of the fastest growing sectors in the
world and many APO member countries, in fact, have given tourism
a high priority in their development plans.
As the demand from tourists to visit natural scenic area
increases, developers have resorted to developing tourist
attractions in and around natural scenic sites, including some
in the ecologically sensitive areas. This has, however, resulted
in severe environmental degradation, and thereby diminishing the
value of the site or feature that attracted the tourists in the
first place. The tourism industry is thus also faced with
criticisms for the negative impacts on the cultural heritage and
the environment of an area. Therefore, there is a need to
balance the needs of tourism development with the environmental
constraints to ensure both economic and ecological
Green Productivity (GP) signifies a new paradigm of
socio-economic development aimed at pursuing economic and
productivity growth while protecting the environment. Therefore,
application of the concept and practices of GP is deemed to be a
very appropriate strategy in the context of ecotourism for the
Recognizing the importance of ecotourism for the member
countries, the APO has organized a number of ecotourism-related
programs since 1996. Specifically, a Workshop on GP and
ecotourism in Bali, Indonesia in June 2000, attempted to
systematically apply the GP principles, practices and tools for
ecotourism. This was followed by a study mission to France on
ecotourism under a project jointly organized by the APO and
ACTIM, France in October 2000. This book is primarily based on
the papers presented during these two events.
To commemorate this International Year of Ecotourism, the APO is
pleased to present this book “Linking Green Productivity
to Ecotourism: Experiences in the Asia–Pacific
This book is the result of an initiative
taken by the Asian Productivity Organization (APO) to promote
within its member countries the concepts and principles of
ecotourism and link these to the practice of green productivity.
Green productivity has been a major thrust of the APO’s
environmental program for some years.
Green productivity (alternatively known as
cleaner production or eco-efficiency) has become a well-known
tool in the Asia–Pacific region as a consequence of the
APO promotion. The link between ecotourism and green
productivity becomes obvious once both concepts are defined.
This was the task undertaken by the APO at a workshop on
Ecotourism and Green Productivity, held in Bali 26–30
The Bali meeting involved a wide range of
typical workshop activities, including the presentation of
scene-setting and overview papers plus reports from participants
on relevant activities in their home economies. In addition to
participants from APO member economies, a number of resource
persons attended the workshop on behalf of APO. There were also
APO Officers from the organization's secretariat .
The resource persons all made significant contributions to the
workshop. Papers by two of these people are included in this
book. In Part A, where general principles are discussed, the
keynote paper, titled “Green Productivity and
Ecotourism” by Liana Bratasida, is presented. In the Part
B, where country reports are presented, an analysis of
ecotourism in Indonesia by Anak Agung Gde Raka Dalem is
The majority of APO member economies were
represented at the Bali workshop and most representatives
presented written papers which are included in this book, a
total of 14 papers. For some economies more than one paper was
presented at the workshop. In this case all papers are included
as each has its own special merit, little duplication is
involved, and the papers are complementary.
Following the Bali meeting, the APO held a
study meeting on ecotourism in France between 2 and 13 October,
2000. A number of country papers were presented at this meeting
and subsequently made available for this book (10 are included).
Combining the two APO meetings, all member economies are
represented with papers except for Hong Kong and Sri Lanka.
Part A of the book comprises an “Introduction”
which highlights the potential global benefits of tourism if it
is undertaken in a sensitive and responsible manner. People who
meet and eat together must surely become friends. People who
travel with their eyes wide open must surely come to love nature
and appreciate its fragility.
The Introduction is followed by a chapter titled “The
Changing Nature of Tourism”. Brief mention is made of the
history of tourism leading up to modern tourism, which is the
world’s largest industry. Tourism is evolving into
nature-based tourism, cultural tourism and ecotourism. This
process is briefly explained before the general principles of
ecotourism are presented.
Chapter Three highlights the need for a partnership
between tourism, particularly ecotourism, and nature
conservation, as well as between tourism operators and managers
of National Parks and World Heritage properties. This chapter
was written by the late Bing Lucas. It is a very lightly edited
version of a keynote address he presented to the 2000 National
Conference of the Ecotourism Association of Australia. As
mentioned, Chapter Four, which is the contribution by Liana
Bratasida, links ecotourism to green productivity.
Part B of the book comprises the edited versions of the
selected country papers.