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OHSAS stands for occupational health and safety standard. OHSAS 18000 is a series of two standards, OHSA 18001 and OHSAS 18002, which provide requirements and guidelines, respectively, for implementing a safety and health management standard. Based on the British Standard BS 8800, OHSAS 18000 was developed by a group of standard bodies, certification bodies, registrars, and consultants and was first published in 1999. It is not an ISO standard. Although the OHSAS 18000 standards were not developed through the ISO, or using the ISO consensus process, they have gained wide acceptance. In 2002, amendments were made to both standards to consider user demands and better align them with ISO 14001 and ISO 9001.

Inspired by the One Village, One Product (OVOP) movement in Japan, the Thai government has been promoting local industry through the manufacturing of attractive specialty products based on the abundant native culture, tradition, and nature. This campaign is called the One Tambon, One Product (OTOP) movement in Thailand because the target area is the administrative unit called a tambon, the equivalent of village or town in English. The objective of the OTOP movement is to allow people living in communities to use their skills in manufacturing products while the government and the private sector assist in developing the products and exploring the markets to create jobs and income while strengthening communities.

The One Village, One Product (OVOP) movement, which was initiated in 1979 in Oita prefecture, Japan, is an innovative program in which each local community identifies one or a few products as locally specific, concentrates resources on its production, establishes it as a local brand, and markets it to the entire country or beyond. The movement tries to revitalize depressed local communities by combining the production of commodities with local pride and human resources development. The OVOP and similar movements have also been implemented with some modifications in other APO member countries. In Thailand, the One Tambon, One Product movement is strongly promoted as a core national policy of rural community development.

Organic farming involves holistic production management systems (for crops and livestock) emphasizing the use of management practices in preference to the use of off-farm inputs such as agrochemicals. This is accomplished by using, where possible, cultural, biological, and mechanical methods in preference to synthetic materials. Environment-friendly approaches/strategies such as integrated pest management, integrated plant nutrient management, and integrated production systems can be used to pursue organic farming. Organic farming is meant to produce organic food/agricultural products for better human health with minimum impact on the environment. The certification of organic products can be a challenge, especially for less developed countries.
See also: Nature farming; Natural farming

Outsourcing is a business practice that involves the transfer of an organizational function (often noncore activities) to a third party. When this third party is located in another country, the term offshore outsourcing may be used. Today many organizations are outsourcing largely due to the benefits it offers, such as lower labor costs or cheaper foreign currencies. Outsourcing enables companies to develop competitive strategies that will leverage their financial positions in the global marketplace. Outsourcing is also successful in increasing product quality or lowering firm and consumer costs. Since outsourcing enables lower costs, even if quality decreases slightly, productivity increases, which benefits the economy in aggregate.


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