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Industrial symbiosis refers to the relationships in a network of businesses, public institutions, and associations in which resources, including materials, energy, infrastructure, by-products, and waste, are exchanged and leveraged to maximize their benefits and create more value. It is used as a strategy to facilitate the circular economy and often embodied in the form of eco-industrial parks (EIPs), where businesses and other stakeholders collaborate to strengthen environmental, economic, and social performance. Vietnam has been proactively developing EIPs and converting existing industrial clusters into EIPs to pursue sustainable industrial development. They help to attract foreign investment, develop complementary sectors, and address environmental concerns, in addition to creating economies of scale for industrial development. This study mission will examine the creation, functions, implications, and sustainability of industrial symbiosis by observing the strategies and practices in Vietnam and discussing their effectiveness.
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