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Project cycle management (PCM), originating from ZOPP (the German abbreviation of objective-oriented project planning), consists of three steps: participatory planning; appraisal; and monitoring and evaluation. These three steps are interlinked by a single format called the project planning matrix (PPM). The use of the PPM provides consistency in PCM throughout the project process. Another attribute of PCM is its logical consistency. It analyzes present conditions and problems by clarifying cause and effect, allowing a logical means-to-an-end relationship to be identified. The workshop format is the most prominent feature of PCM. To reach a common understanding for project formulation and management, groups implementing PCM organize a series of workshops with the participation of all stakeholders.